Contraceptive practices, sexual and reproductive health needs of HIV-positive and negative female sex workers in Goa, India

Wayal, S; Cowan, F; Warner, P; Copas, A; Mabey, D; Shahmanesh, M; (2011) Contraceptive practices, sexual and reproductive health needs of HIV-positive and negative female sex workers in Goa, India. Sexually transmitted infections, 87 (1). pp. 58-64. ISSN 1368-4973 DOI:

Full text not available from this repository.


Objectives In India, female sex workers (FSWs), suffer from high HIV prevalence and abortions. Contraceptive use among general population women is well understood. However, FSWs contraceptives practices and reproductive health needs are under-researched. We investigated contraceptive practices among HIV-positive and negative FSWs in Goa, India and explored its association with socio-demographic and sex work related factors. Methods Cross-sectional study using respondent driven sampling recruited 326 FSWs. They completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and were screened for STI/HIV. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore factors associated with sterilisation relative to no contraception. Results HIV prevalence was high (26%). Of the 59 FSWs planning pregnancy, 33% were HIV-positive and 5-7% had Gonorrhoea, Chlamydia and Trichomonas. 25% and 65% of FSWs screened-positive for Syphilis and Herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies respectively. Among the 260 FSWs analysed for contraceptive use, 39% did not use contraceptives, and 26% had experienced abortion. Half the FSWs had undergone sterilisation, and only 5% used condoms for contraception. Among HIV-positive FSWs, 45% did not use contraceptives. Sterilisation was independently associated with older age, illiteracy, having an intimate non-paying male partner, having children and financial autonomy. Exposure to National AIDS Control Organisation's HIV-prevention interventions was reported by 34% FSWs and was not significantly associated with contraceptive use (adjusted odds ratio 1.4, 95% CI 0.7 to 2.9). Conclusion HIV-prevention interventions should promote contraception, especially among young and HIV-positive FSWs. Integrating HIV treatment and care services with HIV-prevention interventions is vital to avert HIV-positive births.

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Clinical Research
PubMed ID: 20980465
Web of Science ID: 286223800016


Download activity - last 12 months
Downloads since deposit
Accesses by country - last 12 months
Accesses by referrer - last 12 months
Impact and interest
Additional statistics for this record are available via IRStats2

Actions (login required)

Edit Item Edit Item