Role of wastewater irrigation in mosquito breeding in south Punjab, Pakistan


Mukhtar, M; Herrel, N; Amerasinghe, FP; Ensink, J; van der Hoek, W; Konradsen, F; (2003) Role of wastewater irrigation in mosquito breeding in south Punjab, Pakistan. The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health, 34 (1). pp. 72-80. ISSN 0125-1562

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Abstract

: Mosquito breeding within the wastewater irrigation system around the town of Haroonabad in the southern Punjab, Pakistan, was studied from July to September 2000 as part of a wider study of the costs and benefits of wastewater use in agriculture. The objective of this study was to assess the vector-borne human disease risks associated with mosquito species utilizing wastewater for breeding. Mosquito larvae were collected on a fortnightly basis from components of the wastewater disposal system and irrigated sites. In total, 133 samples were collected, about equally divided between agricultural sites and the wastewater disposal system. Overall, 17.3% of the samples were positive for Anopheles, 12.0% for Culex and 15.0% for Aedes. Four anopheline species, viz, Anopheles stephensi (84.3% of total anophelines), An. subpictus (11.8%), An. culicifacies (2.0%) and An. pulcherrimus (0.2%) were present, as were two species of Culex, viz, Cx. quinquefasciatus (66.5% of culicines) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (20.1%). Aedes were not identified to species level. The occurrence of different species was linked to particular habitats and habitat characteristics such as physical water condition, chemical water quality and the presence of fauna and flora. Anophelines and Aedes mosquitos were mainly collected during the month of July, while Culex were collected in September. The prevalence of established vectors of human diseases such as An. stephensi (malaria), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (West Nile fever, Japanese encephalitis) and Cx. quinquefasciatus (Bancroftian filariasis, West Nile fever) in the wastewater system indicated that such habitats could contribute to vector-borne disease risks for human communities that are dependent upon wastewater use for their livelihoods. Wastewater disposal and irrigation systems provide a perennial source of water for vector mosquitos in semi-arid countries like Pakistan. Vector mosquitos exploit these sites if alternative breeding sites with better biological, physical, and chemical conditions are not abundant.<br/>

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Agriculture, Animals, Culicidae/*growth & development, Fresh Water/chemistry/*parasitology, Insect Vectors/*growth & development, Mosquito Control/methods, Pakistan, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Agriculture, Animals, Culicidae, growth & development, Fresh Water, chemistry, parasitology, Insect Vectors, growth & development, Mosquito Control, methods, Pakistan, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Disease Control
PubMed ID: 12971517
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/10828

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