Human immunodeficiency virus, smoking and self-rated health in Harare, Zimbabwe


Munyati, SS; Redzo, N; Dauya, E; Matambo, R; Makamure, B; Bandason, T; Butterworth, AE; Gwanzura, L; Rusakaniko, S; Mason, PR; Corbett, EL; (2006) Human immunodeficiency virus, smoking and self-rated health in Harare, Zimbabwe. The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease, 10 (11). pp. 1279-85. ISSN 1027-3719

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Abstract

SETTING: Twenty-two urban factories in Harare. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), smoking and self-rated health in a high HIV prevalence urban workforce. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. RESULTS: Of 7482 employees, 6111 (82%) consented to interview and anonymous HIV serology; 88% were male; median age was 34 years. HIV prevalence was 19%. Current (median 6 cigarettes per day) and former smoking were reported by 17% and 7%, respectively. Smoking (current or former) was more common among HIV-positive (27%) than -negative participants (17%; P < 0.001). Factors significantly associated with being a smoker on multivariate analysis were being HIV-infected (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.4-1.7), older age (P < 0.001), non-Christian (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2) and manual job (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.6). Women (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.03-0.11) and the better educated (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9) were significantly less likely to smoke. HIV-positive smokers had the highest risk of reporting poor health (adjusted OR compared to HIV-negative non-smokers 3.4, 95% CI 2.3-5.0). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking was significantly more common among HIV-positive than -negative employees in this predominantly male workforce. There was evidence of a combined effect on self-rated poor health, a variable shown to be a strong independent predictor of mortality in industrialised countries. Interventions to encourage smoking cessation may be an important component of HIV care in Southern Africa.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: tobacco, HIV-1, Africa, cross-sectional, opportunistic infection, CIGARETTE-SMOKING, HIV-INFECTION, SOUTH-AFRICA, RISK-FACTORS, TUBERCULOSIS, BEHAVIOR, TOBACCO, IMPACT, MORTALITY, PREVALENCE, Adolescent, Adult, Cross-Sectional Studies, Female, HIV, HIV Infections, epidemiology, Health Status, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Prevalence, Prognosis, Risk Factors, Smoking, adverse effects, epidemiology, Urban Population, Zimbabwe, epidemiology
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases > Dept of Clinical Research
Research Centre: TB Centre
PubMed ID: 17131789
Web of Science ID: 241611800016
URI: http://researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/id/eprint/10555

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