HIV-1 infection as a risk factor for incomplete childhood immunization in Zambia

Setse, RW; Cutts, F; Monze, M; Ryon, JJ; Quinn, TC; Griffin, DE; Moss, WJ; (2006) HIV-1 infection as a risk factor for incomplete childhood immunization in Zambia. Journal of tropical pediatrics, 52 (5). pp. 324-328. ISSN 0142-6338 DOI:

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Immunizations are of particular importance for human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1)-infected children as they are at increased risk of severe disease and death from several vaccine-preventable diseases. Outside the United States, however, research on the impact of the HIV-1 epidemic on childhood immunization coverage is sparse. We conducted a nested case-control study in hospitalized children with measles to assess whether HIV-1 infection was a risk factor for incomplete immunization with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV). Of 473 children, whose immunization status was determined from the immunization record or maternal recall, 23% were incompletely immunized and 19% were HIV-1 infected. After adjusting for age, sex, and measles vaccination status, HIV-1 infection was significantly associated with incomplete immunization with DTP and OPV (adjusted OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1, 3.3). In a subset of children for whom information on maternal education was available, less than 7 years of school education was a risk factor for incomplete immunization (adjusted OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.8. 7.5). Children from homes with more than three children were twice as likely to be incompletely immunized as those from homes with one to three children. Our findings suggest that HIV-1-infected children are at increased risk of vaccine-preventable diseases not only because of impaired immune responses but because of lower rates of vaccine coverage.

Item Type: Article
Faculty and Department: Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health > Dept of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
PubMed ID: 16401614
Web of Science ID: 240931700005


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